What is LNG

The history of LNG has its inventors, heroes and pioneers. There is also a Polish thread without which LNG would not have been so successful.
LNG can be transported long distances from places where traditional pipeline routing is not possible.

LNG is a regular natural gas cooled down to  -162⁰C. It is the same fuel as the one exported to Europe from distant Siberia and – here lies the substantial difference – without various components present in its gaseous form, such as: water, liquid hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide. It consists almost exclusively pure methane. In a changed state (from gaseous to liquid) and with its volume reduced 600 times, it can be transported by road or rail and most importantly – by special vessels called methane carriers.
 
The history of LNG is an example of how great innovations change global economic history. The first liquefaction of gas was performed in 1823 by a brilliant British physicist and chemist Michael Faraday. Sixty years later in Cracow, Polish physicist Florenty Wróblewski and a chemist Karol Olszewski made a ground-breaking discovery – they liquefied air components, oxygen and then nitrogen. This achievement was so significant that it was remembered long after Wróblewski's death (he died in 1888) and in 1976 the International Astronomical Union named a Moon crater after his name.
 
After the discovery made by the Polish scientists, the history of LNG progressed fast; in 1896, a German engineer and entrepreneur Karl Paul Gottfried von Linde constructed the first refrigerator and then the first facility for liquefying LNG was opened in western Virginia in 1917, and the first commercial liquefaction facility was constructed in Cleveland, Ohio (USA) in 1941; it produced 76 tons of LNG daily (modern terminals produce one thousand times more).

The first transport of liquefied natural gas took place in January 1959; an adjusted World War 2 transporter ship named “The Methane Pioneer" sailed out of Lake Charles in Louisiana (USA) and transported LNG to Canvey Island in Great Britain.  World-scale expansion of the LNG trade began in 1964, when the British Gas Council began to regularly import LNG from Algeria.